viernes, 13 de junio de 2014

Neurolesiones/CNS pathology

Contusión medular

Spinal cord contusion.

Ju G, Wang J, Wang Y, Zhao X.
Neural Regen Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2014 May 31];9:789-94.
Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.
Keywords: spinal cord contusion; astrocyte; oligodendrocyte; macrophage; neurosurgery;year=2014;volume=9;issue=8;spage=789;epage=794;aulast=Ju;type=2

¿Como los esteroides influencian la génesis de mielina en el SNC?

How do corticosteroids influence myelin genesis in the central nervous system?.
Chari DM.

Neural Regen Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2014 Jun 5];9:909-11.

CS therapy is widely used in clinical practice worldwide, with administration of high and multiple doses prescribed for a range of disease and injury. Notably, CS have been used since the 1950's for the treatment of suspected respiratory distress syndrome, in order to accelerate lung maturation in premature babies, as also in antenatal therapy to pregnant women at risk of preterm birth (Haddad et al., 1956; Shinwell and Eventov-Friedman, 2009; Bonanno and Wapner, 2012). High dose immunosuppressive CS therapy is also widely used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (Bracken, 2012; Burton et al., 2012). However, several reports have raised serious concerns regarding the adverse neurological consequences of CS use (including neurodevelopmental impairments and a suggested link with cerebral palsy) (Shinwell and Eventov-Friedman, 2009; Reynolds and Seckl, 2012). Data from experimental studies in rodents and sheep have demonstrated that CS treatment can significantly delay cerebral myelination in major white matter (WM) tracts including in areas such as the optic nerve and corpus callosum (Bohn and Friedrich, 1982; Antonow-Schlorke et al., 2009; Shields et al., 2012) as well as the spinal cord [Figure 1], our unpublished data). Axon loss has not been reported in conjunction with the impairment of myelination in the timeframes studied. Similarly, a handful of studies in recent years have shown that CS treatment can significantly delay the production of new myelin (re-myelination) around axons in adult animal models following induction of experimental myelin loss (demyelination) in the central nervous system (CNS) (Chari et al., 2006; Clarner et al., 2011). Remyelination is an important regenerative process that is likely to contribute to the remission of the clinical signs of the disease in conditions such as MS (Franklin and Gallo, 2014). Such regeneration delays have been suggested to render axons vulnerable to degeneration, particularly within the inflammatory environment of MS lesions (Chari et al., 2006). The mechanisms underlying CS-induced myelination delays during CNS development and during regenerative events are not known, and this remains a little researched area of experimental neurology.;year=2014;volume=9;issue=9;spage=909;epage=911;aulast=Chari;type=2

Células madre en patologías neurotraumáticas y neurodegenerativas. Retos y prospectos futuros neuroteraéuticos

Stem cells in neuroinjury and neurodegenerative disorders: challenges and future neurotherapeutic prospects.
Mouhieddine TH, Kobeissy FH, Itani M, Nokkari A, Wang KK.
Neural Regen Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2014 Jun 5];9:901-6.
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases and neural injury disorders is increasing worldwide. Research is now focusing on improving current neurogenesis techniques including neural stem cell therapy and other biochemical drug-based approaches to ameliorate these disorders. Unfortunately, we are still facing many obstacles that are rendering current neurotherapies ineffective in clinical trials for reasons that are yet to be discovered. That is why we should start by fully understanding the complex mechanisms of neurogenesis and the factors that affect it, or else, all our suggested therapies would fail since they would not be targeting the essence of the neurological disorder but rather the symptoms. One possible paradigm shift is to switch from neuroprotectant therapies towards neurodegeneration/neurorestorative approaches. In addition, other and our laboratories are increasingly focusing on combining the use of pharmacological agents (such as Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors or other growth factors (such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)) and stem cell treatment to enhance the survivability and/or differentiation capacity of transplanted stem cells in neurotrauma or other neurodegeneration animal models. Ongoing stem cell research is surely on the verge of a breakthrough of multiple effective therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. Once, we fully comprehend the process of neurogenesis and its components, we will fully be capable of manipulating and utilizing it. In this work, we discuss the current knowledge of neuroregenerative therapies and their associated challenges.
Keywords: neural stem cells; neurodegeneration; neuroinjury; TBI; rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor; BDNF; growth factors; stem cell therapy;year=2014;volume=9;issue=9;spage=901;epage=906;aulast=Mouhieddine;type=2

Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor
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