martes, 25 de marzo de 2014

Neuralgía postherpética/Post-herpetic neuralgia

Tratamiento en el mundo real de la neuralgia postherpética con gabapentina o pregabalina

Real-world treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia with gabapentin or pregabalin.
Johnson P, Becker L, Halpern R, Sweeney M.
Clin Drug Investig. 2013 Jan;33(1):35-44. doi: 10.1007/s40261-012-0030-4.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are limited data examining the real-world use of gabapentin and pregabalin for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). This study examines dosing patterns, therapy outcomes, healthcare utilization and costs of patients with PHN who initiate treatment with gabapentin or pregabalin. METHODS: This was a retrospective administrative claims data analysis from July 2005 to February 2010. Patients with PHN initiating gabapentin or pregabalin (index therapy) from January 2006 to February 2009 were identified and were observed for 12 months after index therapy initiation. Outcomes were mean daily dosages of the index therapy, attainment of minimally effective dosages of gabapentin (≥ 1,800 mg/day) or pregabalin (≥ 150 and ≥ 300 mg/day) persistence, discontinuation, index therapy switching, addition of neuropathic pain medications to index therapy, and healthcare resource use and costs. RESULTS: 1,645 patients were identified. The mean daily dosage was 826 mg for gabapentin and 187 mg for pregabalin. Only 52.6 % of patients initiating gabapentin and 56.9 % initiating pregabalin obtained a refill during the post-index period. Approximately 14 % of patients treated with gabapentin reached the target dosage (1,800 mg/day). For pregabalin, 87 % reached ≥ 150 mg/day and 27 % reached ≥ 300 mg/day. On average, patients took 10 weeks to reach 1,800 mg/day gabapentin, and 5.0 and 9.2 weeks to reach ≥ 150 mg/day and ≥ 300 mg/day pregabalin, respectively. Approximately one-third of patients in both index therapy cohorts added a pain medication; more than half added opioids. The percentage of patients switching from either drug (57 %) or adding a therapy (34 %) were similar between index therapy cohorts; opioids were the most common therapy patients switched to or added. CONCLUSION: It appears that gabapentin and pregabalin are not used effectively to treat PHN. Suboptimal dosing and discontinuation may be associated with supplementary use of other analgesics, especially opioids.

Tratamiento con dosis diaria de gabapentina en neuropatía postherpética: Revisión

Gabapentin for once-daily treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: a review.
Beal B, Moeller-Bertram T, Schilling JM, Wallace MS.
Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:249-55. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S23783. Epub 2012 Jul 12.
Post-herpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome resulting from an insult to the peripheral and central nervous systems caused by the varicella zoster virus. Spontaneous pain may result in the persistent sensation of burning, tingling, or aching and may be associated with thermally or mechanically provoked pain, resulting in hyperalgesia or allodynia. The majority of cases occur in patients over the age of 50 years. Gabapentin is a structural analog of gamma aminobutyric acid that binds to the α(2)-δ site of voltage-dependent calcium channels and modulates the influx of calcium, with a resulting reduction in excitatory neurotransmitter release. Gabapentin is effective in reducing neuropathic pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia when given at least three times per day, due to its short half-life, resulting in demonstrable fluctuations in plasma levels. Gabapentin has dose-limiting side effects that prevent some patients from achieving therapeutic plasma levels, such as somnolence (27.4%), dizziness (23.9%), and ataxia (7.1%). Gralise™ is a once-daily extended-release formulation of gabapentin that has been developed using AcuForm™ technology. AcuForm is a polymer-based drug delivery system that retains the tablet in the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract for a sustained period of time. Once-daily dosing has been shown to provide comparable drug exposure with an identical daily dose of the immediate-release formulation when administered three times daily. Participants given Gralise 1800 mg daily had a statistically significant reduction in average daily pain intensity scores compared with placebo, reduced sleep interference due to pain, and a greater percent of participants reporting being much or very much improved on the patient global impression of change. An analysis comparing the efficacy and safety profiles in the aging population (≥65 years) with those younger than 65 years showed that Gralise is effective and well tolerated in both age groups.
KEYWORDS:aging population, gabapentin, gabapentin extended-release, neuropathic pain, post-herpetic neuralgia

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