Teléfonos móbiles. Reservorios para la trasmisión de patógenos nosocomiales
Mobile phones: Reservoirs for the transmission of nosocomial pathogens
Pal S, Juyal D, Adekhandi S, Sharma M, Prakash R, Sharma N, et al.
Adv Biomed Res 2015;4:144.
Background: Global burden of hospital-associated infection (HAI) is on the rise and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality of the patients. Mobile phones are indispensible part of communication among doctors and other health care workers (HCWs) in hospitals. Hands of HCWs play an important role in transmission of HAI and mobile phones which are seldom cleaned and often touched during or after the examination of patients without hand washing can act as a reservoir for transmission of potent pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the rate of bacterial contamination of mobile phones among HCWs in our tertiary care hospital and to compare it with personal mobile phones of non-HCWs (control group). Materials and Methods: The mobile phones and dominant hands of 386 participants were sampled from four different groups, hospital doctors and staff (132), college faculty and staff (54), medical students (100) and control group (100). Informed consent and questionnaire was duly signed by all the participants. Samples were processed according to standard guidelines. Results: 316 mobile phones (81.8%) and 309 hand swab samples (80%) showed growth of bacterial pathogens. The most predominant isolates were Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas species and Enterococcus species. Conclusion: Hundred percent contamination was found in mobile phones and hands of HCWs indicating mobile phones can be the potential source of nosocomial pathogens. Our study results suggest that use of mobile phones in health care setup should be restricted only for emergency calls. Strict adherence to infection control policies such as proper hand hygiene practices should be followed.
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates cellular phones for potential risk of nosocomial infection amongst dental operators and auxiliary staff in a dental school. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Each participant's mobile phone was first cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab. Following the cleansing protocol, the partakers were asked to make a short phone call. The mobile phones were then washed aseptically by rotating damp cotton swabs with sterile normal saline. Bacterial growth was identified on sheep blood agar and McConkey's agar plates. Sabouraud dextrose agar media was used for fungi species. Descriptive statistics was established with the data statistically explored with SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS: About 50% of dental professionals had shown active bacterial and fungal growth in which 35% (n=35) were dental operators and 15% (n=15) were dental nurses. 53% Gram-positive organisms, 2% Gram-negative organisms, and 3% fungi were identified growths on cellular phones. CONCLUSION: Thus, it can be concluded that the cellular phones of dental operators as compared to auxiliaries can act as a potential source of nosocomial infection.
Most people on the planet own mobile phones, and these devices are increasingly being utilized to gather data relevant to our personal health, behavior, and environment. During an educational workshop, we investigated the utility of mobile phones to gather data about the personal microbiome - the collection of microorganisms associated with the personal effects of an individual. We characterized microbial communities on smartphone touchscreens to determine whether there was significant overlap with the skin microbiome sampled directly from their owners. We found that about 22% of the bacterial taxa on participants' fingers were also present on their own phones, as compared to 17% they shared on average with other people's phones. When considered as a group, bacterial communities on men's phones were significantly different from those on their fingers, while women's were not. Yet when considered on an individual level, men and women both shared significantly more of their bacterial communities with their own phones than with anyone else's. In fact, 82% of the OTUs were shared between a person's index and phone when considering the dominant taxa (OTUs with more than 0.1% of the sequences in an individual's dataset). Our results suggest that mobile phones hold untapped potential as personal microbiome sensors.
Built environment; Cell phone; Human microbiome; Indoor microbiology; Mobile phone; Personal microbiome; Quantified self
BACKGROUND: Mobile smart phones have become increasingly integrated into the practice of doctors and allied medical professionals. Recent studies suggest them to represent reservoirs for pathogens with potential to cause nosocomial infections. This study aimed to investigate the level of contamination on phones used on surgical wards and identify strategies for their safe use within clinical areas. METHODS: Fifty mobile phones were taken from members of the multidisciplinary team working in a surgical unit. Phones were swabbed by two trained investigators using a standardised technique and samples streaked out using an automated specimen inoculator onto two types of culture media (Columbia blood agar and MacConkey agar). Colonies were identified and counted by a single trained investigator in a blinded fashion. Simultaneously a questionnaire investigating usage levels of phones was given to 150 healthcare workers. RESULTS: Sixty per cent of phones sampled had some form of contaminant isolated from their phone. Thirty-one (62%) of phones had only three colonies or less isolated on medium. No pathogenic or drug resistant strains of bacteria were identified. A total of 88% of individuals sampled by questionnaire used their phone within the workplace of which 55% used it for clinical purposes. Sixty-three per cent expected there to be some form of contaminant on their phone with only 37% admitting to cleaning it regularly. Seventy-five per cent of people did not view a ban on phones as a practical solution was they found to be an infection risk.
CONCLUSION: Touch screen smart phones may be used safely in a clinical environment, with a low risk of cross-contamination of nosocomial bacteria to patients, in the setting of effective adherence to hand hygiene policies.