martes, 23 de julio de 2013

Dexmedetomidina espinal/Spinal dexmedetomidine



Eficacia de dexmedetomidina intratecal versus dexmedetomidina con fentanilo intratecales en pacientes con cirugía abdominal mayor por cáncer


Efficacy of intrathecally administered dexmedetomidine versus dexmedetomidine with fentanyl in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery.
Mohamed AA, Fares KM, Mohamed SA.
Pain Physician. 2012 Jul-Aug;15(4):339-48.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Most of the clinical experience gained in the use of intrathecal alpha-2- adrenoceptor agonists has been described with clonidine. Human studies using a combination of intrathecal dexmedetomidine and local anesthetics are lacking. OBJECTIVES: A safety investigation and comparison of the analgesic efficacy of intrathecally administered dexmedetomidine or dexmedetomidine combined with fentanyl in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind trial.SETTING:
Academic medical center. METHODS: Ninety patients were randomly assigned to receive intrathecally either 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% (control group, n = 30), or 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% plus 5 μg dexmedetomidine (dexmedetomidine group, n = 30), or 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% plus 5 μg dexmedetomidine and 25 μg fentanyl (dexmedetomidine= group, n = 30). Assessment parameters included hemodynamics, sedation score, pain severity, time of first analgesics request, total analgesic consumption, and side effects in the first 24 hours. RESULTS: The mean intraoperative heart rate was significantly reduced in the dexmedetomidine group (P < 0.05) and the dexmedetomidine= group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Also, there was a significant reduction in mean intraoperative systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the dexmedetomidine group (P < 0.05) and the dexmedetomidine= group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group, with no significant differences in postoperative hemodynamics or sedation scores among all the study groups. The mean visual analog scale scores showed a significant reduction immediately and at 12 hours postoperatively in both the dexmedetomidine and dexmedetomidine= groups compared to the control group. The mean time of the first analgesic request was significantly prolonged in the dexmedetomidine group (3.30 ± 0.87 hours, P < 0.01) and the dexmedetomidine= group (5.41 ± 1.23 hours, P < 0.01) compared with the control group (0.23 ± 0.11 hours). Moreover, postoperative tramadol consumption was significantly reduced in the dexmedetomidine (142.85 ± 13.04 mg, P < 0.01) and the dexmedetomidine= (131.25 ± 11.96 mg, P < 0.01) groups, compared with the control group (310.0 ± 12.08 mg). No significant serious adverse effects were recorded during the study. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by its sample size. CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine 5 μg given intrathecally improves the quality and the duration of postoperative analgesia and also provides an analgesic sparing effect in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery. Furthermore, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl 25 μg has no valuable clinical effect.
http://www.painphysicianjournal.com/2012/august/2012;15;339-348.pdf




Estudio comparativo de dexmedetomidina y fentanilo intratecales como adyuvantes de bupivacaína
A Comparative study of intrathecal dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants to Bupivacaine.
Gupta R, Verma R, Bogra J, Kohli M, Raman R, Kushwaha JK.
Department of Anaesthesia, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, India.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;27(3):339-43. doi: 10.4103/0970-9185.83678.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Various adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia to avoid intraoperative visceral and somatic pain and to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, the new highly selective α2-agonist drug, is now being used as a neuraxial adjuvant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 5 μg dexmedetomidine (group D, n = 30) or 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 μg fentanyl (group F, n = 30) intrathecal. RESULTS: Patients in dexmedetomidine group (D) had a significantly longer sensory and motor block time than patients in fentanyl group (F). The mean time of sensory regression to S1 was 476±23 min in group D and 187±12 min in group F (P<0.001). The regression time of motor block to reach modified Bromage 0 was 421±21 min in group D and 149±18 min in group F (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine is associated with prolonged motor and sensory block, hemodynamic stability, and reduced demand for rescue analgesics in 24 h as compared to fentanyl.
KEYWORDS: Bupivacaine, dexmedetomidine, fentanyl, spinal anaesthesia
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3161458/



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Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor
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